The chief of the white smiths, associated with the western tngri. He is protective of men and taught them the art of iron-working.



  • Czaplicka, M. A. (1969). Aboriginal Siberia: A Study in Anthropology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 285.
  • Holmberg, Uno. (1927). Finno-Ugric, Siberian. vol. 4, Mythology of All Races. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, p. 464.
  • Krader, Lawrence. (1954). "Buryat Religion and Society." SJA 10 (3):322-351, p. 337.