"creator." The soul of the greatest shaman which, after death, becomes a protector of men. Each clan has its own zayan. The bodies are usually burned or placed in coffins which are then put on trees in a neighboring forest or on a mountain, and are called khadaulan-öbökhöd, "old people of the mountain."



  • Czaplicka, M. A. (1914). Shamanism in Siberia. Oxford: Clarendon Press.