A bird god, the chief god and the creator of all things — the sky, the earth, the sea, and all vegetation. He is the principle of all the anitos.

Bathala is a just god but punitive of sinners.



  • Jocano, F. Landa. (1969). Outline of Philippine Mythology. Manila: Centro Escolar University Research and Development Center, pp. 8, 9.
  • Kroeber, A. L. (1918). History of Philippine Civilization as Reflected in Religious Nomenclature. AMNH-AP, Vol. 19, part 2, p. 2:40.