Eugpamolak Manobo

The chief spirit and creator of the Bagobo. He lives in the sky and watches the doings of men. Many spirits serve him, and, while not malevolently inclined, they are capable of exacting punishment from those who do not make the proper offerings. Below them is a horde of low, mean spirits who delight to annoy mankind with mischievous pranks, or even bring sickness and disaster.

Although he is remote, he is invited to all Bagobo ceremonies, but he refuses bloody sacrifices and does not grant favors.



  • Cole, Fay-Cooper. (1913). The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, p. 61.
  • Cole, Fay-Cooper. (1945). Peoples of Malaysia. New York: Van Nostrand, p. 191.
  • Leach, Maria, ed. (1984). Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: HarperCollins.