Among the Bukidnon, a more specific name for nature spirits, belonging to the Alabyánon class of spirits. They are also called busau. They are said to have only half a face, and to walk on their hands with their heads hanging down and their feet up. Some may have fur but the hairs are sharp like needles.

Of great importance are the Tagahīlum, "dwellers in silence," and Magománay, "spirits which live in the baliti trees," and perhaps all other great trees. (Magománay is also mentioned as a single spirit, the owner of deer and wild hogs.) Trees are their homes and if they are felled the spirits must move. They play an important part in the ceremonies, as well as in the everyday life of the people, particularly in rural areas. See also Ibabasṓ, Lalawag, Tagadaláma, and Tagabato.

A more common term is engkanto, q.v.



  • Cole, Fay-Cooper. (1956). The Bukidnon of Mindanao. Fieldania: Anthropology, vol 46. Chicago: Chicago Natural Museum, p. 96.