The shades of the dead, the chiefs of whom are the people who created the earth. During life they live in the body but after death they go the sky where they remain the greater part of the time. They return to earth at certain seasons to aid or injure the living. It is usually one of their number who keeps guard over the rice fields. The balīan, mediums or shamans, are able to communicate with them and have learned from them the ceremonies to be performed at certain seasons and at the critical periods of life.



  • Cole, Fay-Cooper. (1913). The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, p. 160.