The spirit of a child whose mother died while pregnant, and who for that reason was born in the ground. The muntīanak wanders through the forest frightening people but seldom hurting them.

Among the Tagakaolo it is said that these spirits wander through the forest crying ina-a-a ("mother"). They are hostile and often attack human beings. To escape them a person has to run to a stream and throw water on the abdomens of his pursuers.



  • Cole, Fay-Cooper. (1913). The Wild Tribes of Davao District, Mindanao. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, pp. 177, 160.