In Arrernte belief, rudimentary creatures from which two Numbakulla made animals, birds, and plants, which they then formed into human beings. The name of the totem each individual belongs to is that of the plant or animal from which he was transformed. Cp. inmintera.



  • Leach, Maria, ed. (1984). Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: HarperCollins.
  • Roberts, Ainslie and Charles P. Mountford. (1973). The Dreamtime Book: Australian Aboriginal Myths. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, p. 48.\Spencer, Sir Baldwin. (1904). Northern Tribes of Central Australia. London: Macmillan, p. 749.