The tawagenen are "bound spirits," attached to particular sites in the environment, such as cliffs, caves, rivers, mountains, winds, sea, the underworld, the sky-world, etc. They have very abstract, non-human qualities and are called upon only occasionally, especially in case of waking up from a bad dream or bodily ailments. The tawagenen can be divides into two subgroups: those invoked in rituals by ordinary persons or non-religious specialists, and those invoked by religious specialists. In rituals performed by the latter spirit possession is likely to occur. See also abyan, "unbound spirits."

The name comes from tawag, "to call."



  • Buenconsejo, José Semblante. (2002). Songs and gifts at the frontier. New York: Routledge, p. 103.