The Romans had two divinities whom they believed to be the protectors of stables, viz. Bubona and Epona, the former being the protectress of oxen and cows, and the latter of horses. Small figures of these divinities were placed in niches made in the wall (aediculae), or in the pillar supporting the roof; sometimes, also, they were only painted over the manger.



  • Apuleius. Metamorphoses p. 60.
  • Augustine. City of God iv, 34.
  • Bartelink, Dr. G.J.M. (1988). Prisma van de mythologie. Utrecht: Het Spectrum.
  • Juvenal, viii, 157.
  • Marcus Minucius Felix. Octavius, 28.
  • Smith, William. (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. London: Taylor, Walton, and Maberly.
  • Tertullian. Apologeticus, 16.

This article incorporates text from Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) by William Smith, which is in the public domain.