The god of a Roman mystery cult, the result of the syncretization of Jupiter with a Hittite-Hurrian god of thunder and lightning, possibly Tešub, who was worshiped at Doliche (Dülük) in Commagene. The cult was introduced by the legions returning from Asia Minor and gained popularity in the second century CE, but started to decline mid-third century after the fall of Doliche. Little is known about this mystery religion, particularly because the temples and rituals were only open to initiates and because the cult was not long-lived.
A shrine of Jupiter Dolichenus stood on the Esquiline, and is known only from four inscriptions,1 which indicate that, after being enlarged and redecorated, it was dedicated on 1st August, 191 CE. Another shrine stood in Region XIV, known from two inscriptions.2
The deity's full name is Jupiter Optimus Maximus Dolichenus.
Jupiter Dolichenus was represented as an armored man, standing on a bull, holding a double ax in his right hand and a bolt of lightning in his left.