In Bulgarian belief, a wood hag who frightens children at night. She has the head of an ox. She is the counterpart of the Nocnitsa of Russian, Polish, Serbian, and Slovak folklore.
- Bonnerjea, Biren. (1920). A Dictionary of Superstitions and Mythology. Thomson Gale.
- Leach, Maria, ed. (1984). Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: HarperCollins.