The term is applied both to the totemic animal which gives its name to a totemic group, to the latter, and also to spots which are especially associated with the totemic ancestors. It is the equivalent of the oknanikilla of the Arrernte and the paltinta of the Urabunna.

In the Tjingilli and Binbinga tribe the term is applied to the far past times in which their mythic ancestors are supposed to have lived.



  • Spencer, Sir Baldwin. (1904). Northern Tribes of Central Australia. London: Macmillan, pp. 297, 754.