The "Best and Greatest," an epithet of Jupiter. The temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood on the south summit of the Capitoline hill. It is ascribed to the Tarquins, but it was not dedicated until the first year of the Republic in 245 AUC (510-509 BCE).
- Livy. The History of Rome i, 12; iii, 17; x, 7.
- Pliny the Elder. The Natural History xv, 40.