An aspect of Tāne as the lord of the forest, whose offspring are trees and birds. Forests are alluded to as Te Wao tapu nui a Tāne, "the very sacred forest of Tāne."
- Best, Elsdon. (1924). The Maori. Wellington: Harry H. Tombs, p. 176.
- Hare Hongi. (1907). "A Maori Cosmogony." Journal of the Polynesian Society 16:109-119.