"Avenger." A surname of Mars to whom Augustus consecrated a temple in the Forum in 2 BCE, in fulfilment of a vow made by him at the battle of Philippi in 42 BCE, in which he defeated the murderers of his great-uncle, Julius Caesar. On either side of the temple were porticos and behind these were exedrae with statues of the mythical ancestors of the gens Iulia, of triumphatores, and other distinguished citizens.
Mars Ultor is depicted in a martial pose, wearing a cuirass and helmet. He leans on a lance with his right hand and holds a shield in his left.
- Ovid. Fasti v, 577.
- Suetonius. Divus Augustus, 21, 29; Caligula, 24.