A Kaipara tupua who dwelt in dwelt in the lake or rather lagoon, therefore so known as Te Roto o Humuhumu at north Kaipara. This tupua was a totara-log, or rather that log was the sign (or tohu) under which Humuhumu lived, and drifted about the lake for many generations. He wandered about the waters of his home as often with as against the wind, and regardless of current conditions, favourable or adverse — a sure sign of his mana as a tupua.

Humuhumu disappeared around 1820, and his disappearance was regarded as an ill-omen of impending tribal tribulation. It made a final brief reappearance in 1855, which was followed by severe epidemic.



  • Graham, Geo. (1946). "Some taniwha and tupua." Journal of the Polynesian Society 55:26-39.