Mama-ku (Cyathea medullaris) and Te-poka (Cyathea dealbata) — tree ferns — were once fish, the children of Te Ha-puku, but were chased ashore by Tāwhaki on his return from heaven. They are now the fish of the forest, i.e. trees.



  • Tregear, Edward. (1891). Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. Wellington: Government Printer, p. 202.
  • White, John. (1887). Ancient History of the Maori. 6 vols. Wellington: G. Didsbury, Government Printer, p. 59.